Linds So that I pass my classes…*weak smile

Question Answer
Why were the Viking settlements in North America unsuccessful and overlooked by Europeans? Unsuccessful bc/ the colony was small, lacked supplies, too far from EU/Vineland, not enough ships, unstable financially. They provoked the Indians & were overtaken.
Why did Christopher Columbus cross the Atlantic Ocean in 1492? In what ways was he both a success and a failure with regard to his mission? To prove that the earth was round & to find a safer/efficient trade route to the Indies. Success- EU exploration expanded, massive African slave importation, populated the N.W. Downside- wiped out the native pp. (disease), never found the route.
What was Columbus’s first impression of the “Indians” (see Research Document 1A) and how was this an early sign of the trouble that soon would come to the native people of the New World? What sort of "trouble" did the Spanish bring? He found them friendly, niave, & pliable. Servant material. The Spaniards began enslaving/killing them. Brought Eurasian diseases that destroyed most of the pop.
How did a relatively small number of Spanish people conquer/enslave/transform the surviving natives of Central America? Why did some of the famous Sp.conquistadors who followed Columbus acquired fortune, power, and fame (Hernan Cortes) but some did not? By taking hostages, insisting upon women/food/tribute via intimidation. The Spaniards diseases helped. Chose soldiers/ bureaucrats, & farmers. Spaniards exploited disunity, intimidation via military, eradicated the leaders.
Explain the beneficial and detrimental effects of European-American contact. Speaking of animals, what species did Hernando de Soto bring to North America and why? What breed of dogs did he bring with his army and for what purpose? Disease spread, slavery, soil erosion, vegetation destruct, hostility lead 2 death. Tobacco discov, sugarcane well suited (env.), slave trade increased, gold!American food crops (cattle, horses), & corn/tomatos/pot. imported. Mastiffs-wardgs & 200 horse
What were the basic differences between the approach to exploration and settlement in the New World by the Spanish, French, and English? Spanish demanded gold/native conversions or nat.slvs. Soldiers, rel. leaders, b-crats immigrants. Settlement wz paramount. Tobacco cashcrp. French pursued a N.W. passage to Pacific trading via inland waterways. Est. mil. outpost. Only catholics settle.
Due to internal pol. conflicts it took England nearly 100 yrs after Columbo to begin establishing colonies in the N. W. Once England started, what was the purpose of the Roanoke Island settlement on the Outer Banks of NC (Fort Raleigh) and why'd it fail? 2 est. Eng colony that would mine 4 slvr/gld "annoy" d Spnsh. convert natives, & myb discover a P.O. !2 raid the Spnsh wealthy fleet's passage. Unsuitable env. food-wise hostile natives.
Why did the Jamestown colonists have such a difficult time getting a successful settlement going? Explain how tobacco was both a boon and bane for the Jamestown colony? Swamp/dis. b-ground/poor leaders/no purpose/glory-driven/inixperienced/lack of food. Tobacco was PROFITABLE but deadly/addictive, ruined soil. Didn't aid starving settlers, led to slavery/plantation system.
What does Captain John Smith's History of Virginia reveal about the advantages and limitations of eye-witness history? Why is his story about Pocahontas saving his life questionable? (Research Document 1C) What is the most probable explanation? Advantages-vivid account, but no eyewitnesses. None of the settlers heard about this event. Little understanding of their rituals. Most likely a complete misunderstanding.
Why was slave labor slow to be utilized in Virginia, and why did it eventually replace indentured servitude in Virginia? Economic issues, moral? Costly. Short slave life-span. It replaced indentured servitude bc/ the indentured slvs were almost nonexistent & reduced mortality rates.
Que do historians mean when refer to the push/pull factors in the 17/18th cntrs that led many Eng. people 2 relocate 2 merica. Bgn w/ el J-stown clnsts-continuing through d col priod considering all factors, que es el #-1 cause of d great waves of EUns w Pushed due 2 econom. strggls/regilious bigotry/&dict. govt's. Pulled via prospects of freedom& dat lacked oppressive civil authority. 1Pol. turmoil due 2cath. protestant enclosure forces ppl 2 seek land elsewhere3.machines rep. ppl
Why did the Pilgrims leave England for Holland and then come to America? To what extent were they persecuted for their faith (or not)? They lft 4 Holland bc they blved that it was their ordnd duty 2 sep. thmslvs from Eng's crptnss 2 instill congregation unity & 2 freely worship in their own way. Lft 4 Merica bc lang. brrier/lack of workf cpblts/$. Wntd 2 spread faith in N.W. Verbal persc
Explain the Puritan’s business model and how these colonists were fundamentally different from the Jamestown settlers? obtnd investors in their colony/ engh$/agmnt made early on. $10 share given 2 each pil. 4 signin up. Could invest $10 & get 2 shares (kds worth 1/2 share). 7 yr prtnshp w/ company&sharehldrs ensuing profits/capital b =divided. Sppls pd out of comon.stck
What was the Puritans’ concept of religious freedom? Why did they have a problem with Anne Hutchinson and Mary Dyer? Refer to study original study guide. They didn't tolerate ANY other religion. Theirs alone was pure. Anne/Mary outspoken & excommunicated/hung for their beliefs.
What sort of people typically were accused in the Salem Witch Trials of 1692? Using Bridget Bishop as an example (Research Document 1G, how was guilt determined and what was the punishment? Quakers typ. accsd of heresy. Wmn who behvd strangely. Bridget Bishop had questionable chara. who was accused of w-craft, she didn't encompass the pilgrim's idea of a submissive housewife.
How did the wtch accusations spread in Salem? Expln d theory of conversion hysteria (Chadwick Hansen). Wht evidence suggests that in some cases d claims of affliction probably were a game? Wht does d map by Boyer/Nissenbaum indicate about d underlying so Via sprstitus concern/mental incapacity/pressure from ch. ldrs&society. Thry- weak/frghtd wmn convert their frs 2 tangible symptoms of no knwn source. Game bc a srvnt girl "plyd" gm w/ 2 grls. Accusers=wstrn Slm Accused/defenders= Eastern Slm twn socialT
What was the "Great Awakening" that crossed the Atlantic from England to America and spread across the colonies in the mid-eighteenth century Chrstn rvls appeared among congrlsts&presb. where charismatic preachers (Grg Whtfld) taught that a spiritual rebirth needs 2 take place via salvation.
Why and in what ways did English colonists become "Americans" in a distant land? In other words, what were the causes and examples of this gradual separation? Thy tk everythn thy lrnd from EU & adapted 2 suit thr surroundings. Became independant workers who adopted dffrnt practices (growing tobacco/selling furs) in certain areas.
Colonial governors were appointed by the king and answered only to him; but that said, what was Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 and what does it illustrate about emerging democracy in the colonies? Could governors disregard the wishes of the people? Lrgst uprsing agnst Brit. auth. in N.W. b4 REV. against gov William Berkley (crrpt) wldnt consent 2 attck indians. Democracy aspect growing/ppl dmnd say in decisions/gvnrs disrgd ppl's wishes, took mttrs into their own hands.
Que el prps of el Navigation Acts/how they illustrate d way that Brtsh mercantile system supposed 2 work? Howd system benefit 2 both d colonies & Engnd also frustrating 2 some Americans? In gen, que was d economic cond. of d 13 British colonies in Amer Cnstrctd 2 maintn d economic wllgnss 2 comply 2 parlmnt via comm. rstrtns whr trade was frbddn w/ Frn&Dtch/exprttnyimprttn was regulated betwn colonies&Eng. CHECK NTBOOK STDY GUIDE!
Americus Vespucci Columbus' associate ties w/ Martin Waldseemuller (German mapmaker) who named the N.W. after him in 1507.
Aztec Empire Hernan Cortes led small army against d empr & dftd them w/in 2 yrs by using superior military tactics, eradicating ldrs, & by forming alliances w/ their enemies.
Bacon's Rebellion Led by-Nathaniel Bacon. Against-Governor Berkley (crrpt). Didnt allow attack agnst indians, went ahead w/ smll army (500 men) anyways. Srrndd state house & dmnded comm. as mil. general. Instgt "Dec. of d Ppl" July 30 sayn Brkly w crrpt/sidng w/ntvs 4 gain
Bridget Bishop The witch trials 1st defendant who was executed. She was a woman of dubious/controversial character (owned a tavern, scandalous attire). A dozen people testified against her.
Boyer & Nissenbuan Researchers who discovered a geogrophical pattern regarding the witch trials. The accusers lived in Western Salem village & the defendants/accused lived in eastern Salem town.
John Cabot "Giovanni," sent by King Henry VII who discovered/claimed the british land clains in North America.
Christopher Colombus Financed by queen of Spain to discover safer/efficient trade route to Indies & 2 see if world was round. Opened the door to succesive waves of EU exploration, conquest, & settlement. Populating of the N.W. & mass importation of African slaves.
Conversion Hysteria Chadwick Hansen (historian) related the strange behavior of these women to neurotic syndrome where the patients turen their fears into tangible symptoms (paralysis, blindness etc.)
Hernan Cortes Led a small army against the Aztec Empire in 1519 within Mexico & in the span of two years conquered them
Hernando de Soto explored the southeastern region of the U.S. & led an army of 600 men, 200 horses, & mastiff war dogs against the region. He demanded tribute, took hostages, & burnt the villages of his opposers.
Mary Dryer An outspoken quaker who was a devote follower of Hutchinson (followed her to Rhode I). She was arrested, imprisoned, & hung for heresy on June 1st 1660.
Leif Erikson Son of Erik the Red, an explorer of the N.W. (Vinland). His two brothers attempted to begin settlements but failed miserably because they were ill-equiped.
The Great Awakening In 1740 a ripple of Christian revival began (firstly by John Edwards who preached that a new birth must take place) & then erupted as George Whitfield preached that the congregation should openly challenge the clergy.
Anne Hutchinson A challenger of the church's leaders, began a bible study where women met weekly. She was brought to court for the unauthorized meetings, violation of the 5th commandment towards the clergy, & for preaching "false doctrine." She was later banished & exco
Jamestown Project Comm. by London company, 3 ships (d Susan Constant/Godspeed/Discovery). Captain Christopher Newport. 105 of d original 144 curvived d 1st 4 mnth voyage. Swampy fort, disease-ridden, bumpy stock sales start, lacked backbone. Antagonized then starved by ind
Mayflower Compact Drafted agreement stated to affirm obedience, loyalty, & unity along w/ protection for the political leaders if failure became imminent. It was an unequivocal agreement to swear allegiance to King James. 41 out of 50 men signed it.
Montezuma's Revenge Refers to a case of tourists diarrhea of Mexico. Montezuma II was a ruler of the aztec empire who was murdered by Hernan Cortes.
Navigation Acts Concocted by Parliament. Created 2 maintain the economy of the N.W. by enacting multiple commercial restrictions. (1)Banned trade w/ Frnch&Dtch (2)Restricted importation/exportation out of items between the colonies & EU.
Pilgrims of Plymouth Massachusetts- Built their homes upon the Mayflower during the settlement process. Made a fortified village entitled Plymouth Plantation that boasted of 12 cannons. Their goal was to pay off their debts to the adventurers in London & to the Weston via fishing, lumber, & beaver skins. Pact of nonaggression between the Wampanoags that lasted for 50 years. Plymouth colony was eradicated by King Philip in an effort to preserve his small nation.
Pocahontas "Matoaka (little snow feather), daughter of chieftain. Spared John Smith from execution. Converted to Christianity & renamed Rebecca. She married John Rolfe as a type of political alliance & had a son. She later died of pneumonia in Eng. b4 returning home
Quakers ("Seekers") Best known theology- "Inner Light" expressing that everyone can possess a personal relationship w/ Christ without the clergy. Didn't believe in oaths. A law required the banishment of Quakers due to intolerance who were suspected of heresy.
Roanoke Island Colony- Led by John White, moved to Roanoke then was elected to leave for England as a few families wished to return. Delayed return due to war threats between Spain & England. Every fortified ship was lawed to stay in port in case they were needed. He returned two years later & found an abandoned settlement w/ the work "Croatan" carved in wood. The settlers most likely believed that he wouldn't be returning & integrated themselves inland w/ the natives in order to survive.
John Rolfe Husband to Pocohontas, credited w/ establishing the tobacco industry in VA in 1612. His marriage was viewed as a political alliance.
Salem Town vs. Salem Village S.T. merchants & S.V. farmers possessed some social divisions specifically between their rival churches. Influenced the witch trials since the accused/defendants lived in S.T. while the accusers lived in S.V.
Scrooby to Leiden- Pilgrims originated in Scroobyin the Eng. county of Nottinghsmshire. These ch. mmbrs adopted d seperatist belief that every chrch body should individually seek their own salvation. They left Eng. bc they held the conviction that they should seperate themselves from the corrupt Puritan church of Eng. 2 worship in their own way. Later moved 2 Leiden. Left bc they spoke 0 dtch, no adaquet workforce capabilities, & poor financial resour
Captain John Smith Leader of the VA Jamestown settlement who was rescued by Pocahnotas as her father attempted to "kill" him. Probably a fabricated tail. He sent 2 groups 2 search the South for the missing Roanoke colony.
Squanto (Wampanoags) Kidnapped by Thomas Hunt w/ 19 others as slaves. Set up a meeting between the leaders of his tribe & the pilgrims that led to a peace pact. He secretly planned 2 overthrow Massasoit but was found out & eventually died (poisening?) after given eng refuge.
St. Augustine Florida It was the 1st permanent EU settlement in the N.W. along w/ Spain's main Florida outpost.
Thanksgiving A term 1st used in the 1900's, a feast was initiated as a type of state dinner between the Wampanoags & Pilgrims to promote peace as recalled by Edward Winslow.
John Winthrop- well off English lawyer/businessman who led a group of 700 Puritans to Massachusetts in order to establish a colony after King Charles gave him a royal charter. He was later elected governor who was re-elected 12 times unopposed. His sermon City Upon a Hill is famously entitles "A Model of Christian Charity." He raised over 15-20,000 Puritans who were determined to live in a godly fashion. Lenient decision-maker.

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