ecology test 1

Question Answer
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment ecology
ecology is the the scientific study of the______ influencing the _____ and _____ of organisms, the______ among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the transformation and____ of energy and matter processes; distribution and abundance;interactions; flux
term for where organisms are in an environment distribution
term for how big populations are, if they are common or rare abundance
examples of interactions among organism helping, competing, eating one another
how energy and matter is moving through the ecosystem flux of energy and matter
• energy from sun living organisms moving through ecosystem flux of energy
• matter eating each other, decomposition of animals flux of matter from being present to being used in environment flux of matter
life on earth is _______, there are ______ levels of organization, and multiple ______ and _______ scales interconnected; multiple; spatial; temporal
levels of organization from smallest to largest? individuals, populations, communities
groups of a specific individual populations – can grow or shrink depending on environment
groups of different populations interacting with one another communities
look at multiple spatial scales notes – ecology day 1
smallest spatial scale microsite
example of multiple temporal scales? environments change through time – day to day, or seasonly, how long life cycles are
species are _______ in how long their own life cycles are. flies generation times are short while redwoords can live for thousands of years variable
scientific discipline about organisms and their environment ecology
• is an interdisciplinary field looking at human impacts of the environment
o Includes information from ecology, but also geology, social science, economics, etc…
environmental science
3 applications of ecology agriculture, health and medicine, and conservation&management
¦ Conditions/interactions that allow populations to grow really well agricultural ecology
How diseases might spread through a population/community transmission ecology for health and medicine
Vector born diseases spread by mosquitos/ticks – where populations are more dense, more likely to see those organisms;Microbiomes –community of many species that have huge impact on health ecology for health and medicine use
¦ Fragmented habitats, how we might manage or conserve threatened or endangered species ecology for conservation and management
termed word ecology in 1866 ernst haeckel
what does the Greek word 'oikos' mean place to live
o Ecological society of America – founded in_____ 1915
temperature, light environment, water temp. are all examples of the _______ environment physical
interactions with the physical environment – ¦ Individuals react______ with different physical environments – light, water temp., etc. differently
3 common interactions in nature interactions with the physical environmnet, interactions with other species, indirect interactions
what type of interaction in nature? predator/prey, competition for resources, symbioses interactions with other species
what type of interaction in nature? interaction of species through another species. ex: – 2 species competing for resource, if one species is being eaten by another species competition is lowered indirect interactions
resources are _______ limited
what are 4 examples of limited resources 1) limited space 2) limited water 3) limited food 4) limited light (plants)
humans and the environment – _______ of environment (air and water), ______ of species to novel environments, development of humans has led to ______ loss/______ pollution;movement; habitat/fragmentation
when you throw something "away", is there really an away? no, its going somewhere and effecting something in the environment
the ________ in natural systems are revealed sequentially as ecologists pursue questions. complexity makes understanding challenging but it is also important. in the las ~______ years we have collectively learned a lot about natural systems connections; 100
why are amphibians "biological indicators? permeable skin – molecules from environment (pollutants) go through their skin; exposed eggs (no shell to protect from environment) and live life cycle in land and water so full exposure to pollutants in land and water
5 steps in scientific method observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment
amphibian populations are _________ globally and also are suffering from _______ – misshapen, missing, or extra limbs; back growths declining ; deformities
in the case study with amphibians, the first prediction was that what was causing deformities and declines in amphibian populations? parasitic flatworms, Riberioia ondratrae
parasite has a _______ life cycle – several different hosts complex
when it was predicted in the case study that parasitic flatworms were causing deformities and decline, a controlled laboratory experiment was performed to test the effect of parasites on _______ and ______ survival and deformities
what did researches find when measuring deformities and survival in frogs when tadpoles were exposed to different levels of parasites? parasites decrease survival and cause deformities
in the frog case study, deformities have been observed prior to declines. frequency increased>90% in some ponds, ponds with proximity to farm fields (pesticides)… how did they test this? field experiment – testing joint effects of parasites and pesticides
a field experiment is less _________ because its in the natural environment controlled
in the field experiment in the frog case study, the experimental design included a _____ pond and a ________ pond, with 2 types of cages – fine mesh ______ parasites and wide mesh_______parasites clean; polluted; excludes; allows
after the field experiment in the amphibian deformity/decline case study, it was concluded that both ______ and _______ contributed to amphibian deformities parasites and pesticides
after the field experiment in the amphibian deformity/decline case study, it was concluded that deformities required _______, but deformities increased with _______ parasites; pesticides
after seeing that pesticides increased deformities with parasites, in the case study researches tested the effect of pesticides on________ and measured immune response and parasite load immunity
_______ may weaken the immune system in tadpoles, making them more susceptible to parasites and deformities pesticides
how did they measure immune response? looked at white blood cells – eosinophils
what were the 3 main experiments of the amphibian deformity/decline case study? parasites effect on deformities –> pesticide/parasites in field –> immune response and pesticides
when we alter one aspect of the environment, it can lead to unitended _________EX pesticide spraying in agriculture leads to more deformed frogs consequences
ecological truths – table 1.1 last slide lecture 2 look at
scientific method is described by what 3 terms? iterative, self-correcting, perpetual work in progress.. experiments lead to new questions
3 approaches to ecological research. does a single approach work? observational, experimental, theoretical. NO SINGLE APPROACH WORKS IN ALL SCENARIOS
there is an increasing level of __________ from observational, experimental, and theoretical ecological research abstraction
theoretical ecological research approach is _______ but _______. lose some details of the natural world EX an equation precise but abstract
as you go from observational to experimental to theoretical research methods, you gain and lose certain elements ok
good ________ is critical in ecology. baseline – without this no good questions. example – observation of beak size and shape variety in galapagos finches and amphibians decline and deformities observation
what 3 different scale ecological experiments did we tlak about? laboratory, small-scale field, and large-scale field
as you move from laboratory experiments to small then larger field experiments, what do you lose and what do you gain? lose experimental control but gain ecological realism
________ are possible answers to a question. hypothesis
hypothesis that there is no relationship/association between measured groups. EX: pesticides do not affect susceptibility to parasites null hypothesis
hypothesis that there is some relationship. ex: pesticides do affect susceptibility to parasites alternative
2 experimental approaches correlational approach and manipulative experiments
experimental approach that makes use of natural variation to test for relationships. ex: hypothesis: pesticides increase parasite susceptibility. prediction: more polluted ponds will have more parasite infections correlational approach – go to different ponds with different pesticide amounts – natural variation
experimental approach where an investigator actively does something to the system and measures effects of manipulations on variables of interest. ex: active exclusion of parasites using small mesh manipulative experimental approach
a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning interference
causes of biological variation are _____ and _____ – could be any number of causes for why there might be variation many; diverse
validating inferences in the face of variation is the domain of ______ _______ and _________ experimental design and statistics
5 key features of experimental design knowledge, adequate controls, replication, randomization, tradeoffs in design
two types of control? negative and positive
part of experiment that gives us no effect when there should be no effect – ex adding no parasite to containers and having no infection negative control
effect where there should be an effect – ex add parasites and get an infection positive control
intermediate between negative and positive controls treatment
need ________to increase accuracy of experiment replication
replication reduces __________. as you flip the coin more times, you get more heads variability
replicates must be ________ of each other independent
_______-getting value you want
______-hitting same place every time
accurate; precise
removes bias, and is a control for "lurking" variables randomization
¦ Something that is important to system but you might not be able to see lurking variable
_______ design allows examination of multiple interacting factors factorial
including more factors leads to _________ experiments. experiment size grows ________ – every factor you add have to multiple to other factors you already had – LECTURE 3 PAGE 34 bigger ; multiplicatively
observatioanl, experimental, and theoretical approachs are all ________, together they make a powerful toolbox to answer ecological questions complementary
__________ approaches are mathematical and computational approaches. generalization of problems, forces clear thinking, highlights assumptions, generates specific/quantitative predictions theoretical
why do distant ecosystems look so similar? distant places but maybe the climate is similar
current conditions (temperature, precipitation, humidity); single instance of occuring conditions in one place weather
long term description of weather at a given location. based on averages and variation measured over tim climate
3 important features of climate – 1) ______ over time (can be different time scales 2) ________ events are important (i.e.,variability) 3) _________ of environmental changes averages; extreme; timing
global energy in input as _______ ________. some reflected, some absorbed by the surface solar radiation LECTURE 4 PAGE 6 GRAPH
heat loss through evaporation latent heat flux
air and wind currents can lead to heat loss sensible heat loss
absorbed solar energy is emmited back towards the atmoshpere as _____ _______ infrared radiation
atmosphere absorbs infrared radiation and radiates back towards surface reradiation
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb and reradiate infrared radiation greenhouse gases
differences in ______ _________ generate global patterns of movement and air, and subsequently, the water solar radiation
the shape of the earth generates differences in ______ ________. the equator has the same amount of rays concentrated in a smaller area of the earth, while the north pole has the same amount of rans concentration in a larger area so less solar radiation solar radiation
heating and uplife leads to low ______ ________. more cool air results in a higher ______ _________ atmospheric pressure
process of surface heating and uplift of air solar radiation heats surface of earth 1) warm air is less dense than cool air 2) warm air rises (uplift) and expands 3) expansion cools air 4) condensation into clouds LECTURE 4 PAGE 10
because the equator has the highest of incoming solar radiation, the surface is getting heated a lot, causing a lot of ________ making it a place of low atmospheric pressure uplift
when air becomes the same temperature as the surrounding atmosphere, it falls back towards the surface. what is this called subsidence
when subsidence happens, it causes a band of _______ atmospheric pressure high
3-cell model of global climate. what cell? intense solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, tropical zone hadley cells
3-cell model of global climate. what cell? intermediate solar radiation, variation in atmosphere pressure, temperate zone ferrell cells
3-cell model of global climate. what cell? low solar radiation, high atmospheric pressure, polar zones polar cells
3 major climate zones of earth tropical, temperate, polar
wind flows from areas of _______ pressure to _______ pressure high to low
the ________ effect deflects surface winds caused by the rotation of the earth. generates consistent patterns of global air circulation called _______ _________ coriolis; prevailing winds
prevailing wind patterns are affected by _______ ______ ________ continental land masses
water has a higher ______ ________ than land. oceans can absorb and store solar energy without changing temperature much heat cpacity
in the summer, the land is warmer, so it has more uplift, and land masses have _________ pressure affecting prevailing wind patterns lower
in the winter, oceans are relatively warm, there is more uplift on oceans, and oceans have a __________ pressure affecting prevailing wind patterns lower
why do land masses and water have an affect on prevailing wind patterns? bc different heat capacities of water and land generate different atmospheric pressures in summer and winter and wind flows from high pressure to low pressure
surface ocean currents are driven by _______ _________ prevailing winds
oceean currents are much _________ than wind currents. they transfer energy between _______ and ________ slower; poles and tropics
there is a greater variation in annual temperature over land than oceans. ______ ________ _______ is the average difference between the warmest and coldest monthes seasonal temperature variatoin
3 determinants of regional climate 1) proximity to oceans
2) mountains and altitude
3) vegetation cover
________ moderate temperatures along coastlines. since they have a high heat capacity, results in less seasonal variation oceans
which has a more variable climate – continental or maritime continental
higher daily and seasonal variation in temperature, low humidity continental climate
low daily and seasonal variation in temperature, high humidity maritime climate
mountains influence ________ climate. vegetation changes as you move up a mountain. regional
as altitude increases: temperature _________, precipitation __________, and wind speed ________ decreases, increases, increases
precipitation is greater on the windward slope (wheere wind is coming from) 1) wind picks up water over the ocean 2) air rises and cools 3) dry air descends and warms down mountain rain-shadow effect – particularly on mountains run by the coast
example of rain shadow effect west side of sierra nevada (by ocean) vs east side
vegetation cover on land – the AMOUNT and TYPE of vegetation cover alters interactions with what 3 things? solar radiation, wind, water loss
the amount of solar radiation that the surface reflects albedo
o Dark forest with lots of trees –_______ albedo because less solar light is directly reflected off surface lower
o Desert, sparser vegetation and lighter color –_______ albedo higher
albedo can influence the surface temperature of the earth and so you can get different _________ depending on where ya are uplift
vegetation can cause_______ by disrupting wind air flow turbulence
a smoother texture vegetation, like plains of grasses, have ______ energy transfer and wind moves over it easility less
a rougher texture vegetation, like more trease, has ______ energy transfer because more wind turbulence more
loss of water from inside plants through their leaves transpiration
sum of water loss from transpiration and evaporation evapotranspiration
transpiration increases with ____ _____ per ground _____ ______ leaf area; surface area
_______ can change the climate to a warmer, drier regional climate. albido is increased, lose a lot of evapotranspiration and get much less heat transferred into environment and less precipitation deforestation
3 things that affect climate variation over time 1) seasonality and the tilt of the earth 2) aquatic environments 3) long term climate change
tilt of the earth leads to ________ variation – more pronounced in temperate and polar zones because equator always gets love from sun seasonal
zone of maximum air uplift and precipitation intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
changes in radiation are relatively _______ in the tropics small
movement of the ________ causes wet-dry season ITCZ
long term climate is effected by _________ cycles that examine what 2 things? shape of orbit and angle of tilt – they both shift
the shape of orbit changes ______ ______ and angle of tilt of earth intensifies ________ variation solar intensity; seasonal
3 things that effect the chemical environment salinity, acidity/alkalinity, oxygen concentrations
the concentration of dissolved salts in water. salts affect how well organisms can absorb water salinity
ocean salinity changes with ________ – evaporation – more of it, increase salt, precipitation, – puts water in, less salinity sea ice melting – less salinity latitude
what process? salt build up in the soil, water is brought to the surface by plant roots and/or irrigation, high rates of evapotranspiration salinization of soils in arid regions
organisms are sensitive to acidity. can only tolerate limited pH ranges, and ________ is generally more stressful than alkaline environments acidity
organisms require oxygen for __________ metabolism
__________(low oxygen) conditions can promote formation of toxic chemicals. availability of atmosheric oxygen decreases with elevation hypoxic
oxygen concentration can vary greatly in soils and water. oxygen diffuses _______ into water. waves and currents help mix oxygen from the atmosphere into water slowly
outermost crust of the earth lithosphere
lowest level of the atmosphere troposphere
zone of life on earth between troposphere and lithosphere biosphere
biomes are ______-scale biological communities shaped by the ________ environment in which they are found. do not care about taxonomic relationships large; physical
terrestrial biomes are defined by _____ ______ ______- many forms as a result of diverse selection pressures (aridity, high temp, subfreezing temp, low nutrient soils, crowding, grazing) plant growth forms
size and morphology of the plant plant growth forms
similar climates generate similar selection pressures, which is why we see similar growth forms across continents, even when plant groups are not related. this is called __________ in plant growth forms. it also happens outsdie of plants convergence
why are plants used to define biomes? they don't move, they are at the mercy of the environment. rely on physical nutrients, they are abundant, good indicators of regional environment
_____-_____ change has altered the biosphere – agriculture, urban development, transportation corridors. grasslands in the temperate zone most impacted, and desert/ arctic are less bc less human footprint land-use
9 terrestrial biomes? tropical – 1) tropical rainforest 2) tropical seasonal forest and savanna
temperate – 3) desert 4) temperate grassland 5) temperate shrubland and woodland 6) temperate deciduous forest 7) temperate evergreen forest polar 8) boreal forest 9)tundra
global biome distributions are based on _________ – combination effects of latitude (solar radiation) and continental land-mass (heat capacity/uplift, winds) climate
_______ and ________ determine biomes temperature and precipitation
average monthly temperature and precipitation. when precipitation drops below temperature in this diagram, there is not enough precipitation for plant growth climate
what biome? high temperature, high precipitation, highly productive, high biodiversity, ~50% of species live here, seasonal variation is minimal, light is a key factor tropical rainforest
~_____% of the tropical rainforest biome has been altered from deforestation 50
______is a key factor in tropical rainforests because there is so much productivity plants have to compete for it light
what biome? seasonal rainfall, fewer trees, more grassland, mix of deciduous and evergreen trees tropical seasonal forest and savanna
in the tropical savanna, this can increase the length of the dry season, and are important for establishing dominant growth forms. What can maintain grasslands? fire
what biome? very low precipitation, sparse plant and animal populations with adapatations for hot, dry climate. descinding air from hadley cells deserts
what biome? "terrestrial oceans" – the great plans and the steppe; high seasonal variation (hot and wet in the summer and cold and dry in the winter), fires and grazing maintain grass dominance temperate grasslands
most ______ ________ biomes in north america and eurasia have been converted for agricultural use. grasses invest growth in roots more than leaves and stems; as a result, grasslands have highly _______ soil temperate grasslands; fertile
what biome? short trees and shrubs, "mediterranean" climate – asynchrony between precipitation and growing season (rain in winter, dry in summer), sclerophyllous plant growth forms (tough leathery leaves), adapted to dry conditions temperate scrublands and woodlands
climate described as an asychrony between precipitation and growing season mediterranean climate
plant growth form with tough leathery leaves for dry conditions sclerophyllous plant growth forms
what biome? deciduousness and broad leaf trees for a solution to extending freezing temps, lower diversity than tropics, absent in southern hemisphere temperate deciduous forest – mississippi
deciduous forests drop their leaves in winter T or F true
what biome? non-deciduous tree (conifers such as pines, firs, and juniper), lower biodiversity than tropical rainforests and deciduous forests, nutrient poor soils, range of precipitation temperate evergreen forests
what biome? occurs in areas of high precipitation, less diverse plant and animal life than tropical rainforest, very wet but cooler temps temperate rainforest
what biome? towards artcic area, biome of largest area, long,cold winters, primarily conifer trees (pine and spruce) and birch trees, permafrost prevents water drainage boreal forests (taiga)
what is the biome of largest area? boreal forests (taiga)
subsurface soil that remains frozen; prevents water drainage permafrost
in boreal forest, without _____, forest growth increases permafrost; without it, get build up of organic matter with no decomposition bc of permafrost in soil fire
what biome? primarily in the arctic, high atmospheric pressure, trees no longer dominant, mostly grasses, forbs, and low shrubs, permafrost throughout, pristine environments as a result of limited human occupancy tundra
climate changes rapidly going up mountains, _______ decreases and _________ increases temperature; precipitation
_________ bands determine biological communities elevational
4 mountain biological zones? (biomes) lower montane = "grassland"
montane = "temperate forest"
subalpine = "boreal forest"
alpine = "tundra"
some mountain biological zones have no biome analog, they have unique climate conditions –> extreme daily temp changes, greater wind speeds, more intense solar radiation, and lower oxygen concentration ok
are mountain biological zones on all contitents? yes
large scale biomes determined by _______. terrestrial biomes defined by dominant ______ _____ ______. ________ bands determine assemblages in mountain zones climate; plant growth forms; elevational
the concept that organisms interact with their environment and fit some role in their environment niche concept
organisms differ in their ________ preferences… most like to stay around 50 C for ________, and not too cold for their cell structure because water freezes in cells. there are some extreme organisms called ________ environmental; metabolism; extremophiles
niche concept page 3 – different components /performance of life cycle may be more __________ to a certain condition sensitive
species vary along __________ axes. when looking at optimal temperatures for net photosynthesis. lower elevation plants do better at high temps and higher elevation plants at low temps – niches environmental
niches can be more complicated than a _______ factor. can be found in 1D, 2D, 3D, and more dimensions single
when looking at niches
2-dimensions shows ___________
3-dimensions shows ___________
area; volume
the idea that there are many, many possible important features that create some abstract space across what defines a species niche. idea that there are many dimensions and a space of more dimesnsions N-dimensional hypervolume
what kind of niche? o species COULD occupy
¦ absence of negative interactions/constraint, the FULL environmental range
what niche? maybe resources are unavailable, other species competing for resources, parasites/predators are restricting area of environment that species occupy realized niches
is the fundamental niche always larger than realized? if one species can help another species, it can broaden the area where its found
where a species lives, actual places, provides the niches habitate
summary f the conditions necessary for a species, abstract, multiple within the same habitate niche
small area, but key connection between terrestrial and marine systems. composed of streams, rivers, and lakes freshwater biological zone
component of freshwater biological zones – lotic ecocsystmes (washing) streams and rivers
component of freshwater biological zones – lentic ecosystems (calm/slow) lakes
what 4 things contribute to biological organisms found in freshwater biological zones? velocity, temp, clarity, chemistry
classifies size and strength of waterways…it profressively increases stream order
what stream order is the middle ground for distinguishing between stream and river? stream < _____ < river 6th order
largest river? amazon – 12th
mississippi – 10th
most streams are what stream order? 1st to 3rd
spatial zone of stream that is shallow, fast moving portion of the stream, high oxygen input bc more turbulent riffles
spatial zones of streams that are deeper, slower moving portion of stream and have lower oxygen input bc less turbulent pools
what spatial zone of streams where different organisms live? flowing water, many fish live here and swimmers main channel
what spatial zone of streams where different organisms live? bottom of the stream, organisms consuming detritus, insect larvae, crustaceans benthic zone
what spatial zone of streams where different organisms live? mixing of stream and ground water, mud, rotifers, copepods, insects hyporheic zone
model for organization of biological communities in streams/river systems; looks at input of vegetation from banks, stream bed particle size, and organism feeding style from origin to mouth of river the river continuum concept
as you go from origin to mouth of river, the input of vegetation from banks __________ decreases
as you go from origin to mouth of river, the stream bed particle size gets ____________. more erosion at the mouth than the origin smaller. origin – boulders, harder for aquatic plants to establish. mouth – finer, aquatic plants can establish
as you go from origin to mouth of river, organism feeding style goes from what to what? shredders – tear apart plant matter from side of river
to collectors – extract small particles from water
3 main ways lakes can be formed glacial lakes: glacials gouge out depressions, leave behind natural dams;
or chunks of glaciers melt surrounded by debris or oxbow lakes: winding rivers stop flowing into a channel and get separated into a lake
size and shape of a lake determines nutrient and energy status of a lake. SA: to volume is important. whats the most nutrient-rich shape? shallow large lake
differences in water temp and density result in ___________- different temperature and densities don't mix well stratification
seasonally, surface layer cools (fall and spring) and allows mixing because the surface and deeper parts are the same temp, and this process is important for nutrient cycling. what is it called? turnover
______ and _______ of light penetration helps determine assemblages depth; degree
surface layer of water with enough light for photosynthesis; base of ecosystems; phytoplankton photic zone
where photic zone his the bottom; phytoplankton, algae, fish littoral zone
the open water; zooplankton, fungi, fish pelagic zone
marine biological zones are categorized by relative proximity to shorelines and the ocean bottom. what are the 3 zones? nearshore, shallow ocean, open and deep ocean
rocky intertidal,mangrove forests, salt marshes, and estuaries are all what? nearshore zones
junctions between rivers and ocean; variation in salinity bc mix of fresh and salt water, many fish species, marine worms, and shellfish nearshore zone – estuaries
grasses, rushes, herbs growing out of water, low area near the shore that flooding at high tide causes gradient of salinity, and this zone provides food and protection for fish, crabs, birds and small mammalls near shore zone – salt marshes
salt-tolerant, evergreen trees and shrubs. found on troical coastal areas, dominate some tropical coastal zones, roots collect and build up sediment and modifies the shorelines. manatees, monkeys. soil permanently flooded so unique root systems nearshore – mangrove
stable substrate for many organisms, sessile organisms must cope with wet and dry conditions; tide pools at low tide provide refuge for mobile organisms and are an important study system for ecological dyanmics nearshorre zones: rocky intertidal – where waves hit
area in shallow ocean; complex habitat that supports a huge diversity of marine life and the shallow warm waters are productive; analogous to the tropical rainforests of the ocean coral reefs
form sybmioses with algae, extract calcium carbonate to form skeleton like structures corals
coral reefs can be massive. world wide, 1 million species supported by coral reefs. it has the highest _________ of any ecosystem on earth biodiversity
this process is when corals expel algal symbionts, therefore gaining a white color. it leads to the starvation of coral and loss of habitat for a wide range of marine organisms coral bleaching
leading cause of coral bleaching is what? rising sea temps
section of ocean that is a relatively high light environment, photosynthesizers provide energy to support community, composed of many seagrass beds and kelp forests shallow oceans
area of shallow ocean of submerged flowering plants (not technically grass), found on the fine sediment/mud, many species of alagae, invertebrates (crabs/muscles), and fish seagrass beds
area of shallow ocean that supports a diverse community, they are large and fast growing and home to sea otters, fish, and urchins; grazing keeps density down to allow enough light for photosynthesis kelp forests
because seagrass beds and kelp forests are both photosynthetic, it means that the shallow oceans are in the _______ zone photic
what are the 2 sections of the open ocean? pelagic zone and deep ocean
the pelagic zone of the ocean is incredibly ________ and has highly variable diversity of life. majority of life is still found the in _______ zone (~200 m) vast; photic
swimmers capable of overcoming current (found in pelagic zone of ocean, fish squid mammals turtles) nekton
far below the photic zone, high pressure, low temperature, no light, many bizarre animals deep ocean
because of human impacts in the oceans, ___________ has created the great pacific garbage patch of large floating rafts of trash, increased green house gases have caused rising temperatures and acidification, as well as overharvesting pollution
organisms must cope with environmental variation and what are the options for coping with environmental changes (2)? tolerance and avoidance
environmental variation and how organisms cope with variation influences _________ distribution geographic
the condition where environtmental changes lead to decrease in physiological processes. example – high altitude leading to hypoxia stress
individual response to a stress or environmental variation; temporary adjusting of physiology ex: athletes training at high altitudes acclimitaztion
population response to environmental variation/stress; evolutionary, selection on natural genetic variation; changes baseline physiology adaptation
there are multiple solutions to an environmental variation problem. for example, high elevation in humans and low oxygen concentrations. what example did we look at for this? andean – higher red blood cells counts and larger lung capacities
tibetan – higher breathing rates and blood flows
controls all physiological activity in all organismal groups temperature
more restricted temperature range; smaller range of body temps, birds and mammals, "warm blooded" endothermic animals
organisms that can't regulate body temperature as well, "cold blooded", at fate of environment ectothermic animals
?H = ? energy inputs – energy outputs
plants lose heat through ___________ transpiration
what does convection/conduction energy/temperature mean? how warm/cold ground or air is in relation to a plant for example
active method of plants regulating temperature by water loss through the leaves evapotranspiration
openings in leaves allowing water out and CO2 in stomata
__________ cells control the opening and closing of stomata guard
when stomata are closed, the plant is __________ and when they are open the plant is ___________ warmer; cooler
animals can generate internal heat, but ectotherms and endotherms have different ________ physiologies
__________ animals cannot adjust body temperature internally well; they rely on exchange with the environment ecthothermic
for ectothermic animals, what does a low and high SA:V ratio meant? low – difficult to gain/lose heat
high – difficult to maintain constant temp (very large ectotherms are rare)
ectotherms make _________ adjustments to adjust body temp – basking behavioral
_________ can generate heat internally. metabolism rate increases in colder temperatures endotherms
zone where metabolism rate is constant in endotherms and body temp is maintained thermoneutral zone
animals from colder climates can maintain _________ zone to low temperatures thermoneutral
an essential ingredient for all life; organismal content of this is between 60-90% of body mass water
organisms must maintain________ balance in changing environments (hot, dry, salinity) water
water flows along energy gradients, these energy gradients are called ______ _________ and they flow from higher to lower water potential
energy associated with dissolved solutes, more solutes leads to lower energy and water potential flows to lower energy osmotic potential
energy associate with exertion of pressures; higher pressure, water flows from there to area of lower pressure pressure (turgor) potential
plants dehydrate and rehydrate by opening and closing their stomata. during the day, they are ________ and during the night they are ________ open; closed
transpiration is important for cooling but if continually transpiring water loss leads to __________ wilting
when stomata are open, there is transpiration and decreased water potential in leaves and the lower potential draws water to the leaves (higher –> lower) ok
when stomata close, transpiration ceases and the water potential gradient disappears and the plant gets ________ rehydrated
plants grow differently with changing precipitation; in dry environments, plants invest more in _________ for acquiring water needed for maintaing higher transpiration roots
forces that slow water moving along a gradient resistance
there are _______ to limit water loss in ectotherms. ex: expose differnet species of ectotherms to dry environment and weigh frogs (proxy for water loss), the thicker skin the less water loss but higher rate of breathing (trade off) adaptations
_________ tolerance – water bears and club moss can lose 80-90% of water but can rehydrate and return to normal state; typically small organisms desiccation tolerance

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