Develop. Milestones

Question Answer
Birth-1 Month: Gross Motor – Random movements with flexor withdrawal
– Thoracic extension developing
– Lifts and turns head in supportive sitting
– Reflexive stepping and swimming present
Birth-1 Month: Fine Motor – Reflexive ulnar grasp
Birth-1 Month: Sensory Motor/Play – Startles spontaneously
– Alerts to sounds
– Beginning to localize to sounds
– Quieted by music
– Alert 1 of every 10 hours
– State modulation, ability to either be awake or to block out all stimuli and sleep present
Birth-1 Month: Self Care – Strong reflexive suck-swallow reflex enables baby to feed
– Generally no established feeding schedule, feeds on demand
Birth-1 Month: Social Emotional – All primary emotions are present
– Reciprocal communication developing; learning that crying leads to being picked up
– Eyes fix on another's face if within visual range
– Makes eye contact
Birth-1 Month: Cognitive – Remembers object that reappears after 2 seconds
– Random vocalizations
– Piagetian Sensorimotor Stage of Development begins (birth-2 years)
Birth-1 Month: Sensory Motor/Play cont. – Hearing, smell, sight, touch & awareness of positional shifts are intact
– Sensitive to pain
– Attends to objects that are bright red or yellow or that have sharp contrasting colors
– Fixates on objects and tracks objects in 90-degree plane
2 months: Gross Motor – Lifts head 45-degrees when prone on belly
– Holds head fairly erect but it remains wobbly
– Turns from side to back
2 months: Fine Motor – Elicits grasp and attempts to bring hand to mouth
– Beginning to bat at hanging objects
– Involuntary release
2 months: Sensory/Motor Play – Slowly tracks objects with eyes
– Self-regulation emerging
– Quiets self by sucking
– Studies hands
2 months: Self Care – Developing rudimentary sleep-wake cycle
2 months: Social Emotional – Responds to people with interest
– Smiles when sees human
– Studies own movements and can repeat them
2 months: Cognitive – Clearly discriminates among voices, people, and objects
3 months: Gross Motor -Holds head up with control when prone on belly
– Raises head and chest when prone on belly
– Rolls from back to front
– Kicks and straightens legs
– Sits with support
3 months: Fine Motor – Ulnar grasp reflex disappearing
– Beginning of voluntary grasp
– Attempts to reach and grasp, but unable to pick up objects
3 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Beginning of exploratory and interactive play
– Explores face, eyes, and mouth with hands
– Localizes to sound
– Visually seeks out source of sounds
– Improving visual tracking; eyes track in 180 degree plane
3 months: Self Care – Beginning to establish a feeding schedule with longer intervals between feedigns
3 months: Social Emotional – Watches people
– Recognizes primary caregivers
– Primary attachment relationships developing
– Seeks out the attention of caregivers
– Temperament styles and activity levels emerging
– Social smile established
3 months: Cognitive – Memory developing
– Distinguishes speech from other sounds
– Coos
4 months: Gross Motor – Lifts head up 90 degrees
– Pulls to sit with assistance
– Hands and arms come to midline
4 months: Fine Motor – Voluntary ulnar and grasp developing
– Reaches for and grasps objects
– Brings hands together at midline
4 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Responsive for more than an hour at a time
– Shakes rattle
– Explores objects with mouth
– Pulls dangling toy to mouth
– Can focus at different distances and see in full color
– Can follow moving object
4 months: Self Care – Recognizes bottle
– Beginning to take pureed food
– Feeding equated with play
4 months: Social Emotional – Beginning to smile at self at mirror
– Responds to familiar people
– Social laughter
4 months: Cognitive – Beginning to vocalize more
– Beginning to imitate sounds
5 months: Gross Motor – Rolls from back to front
– Pulls to sit with no head lag
– Balances head steadily and holds it erect in supported sitting
– Begins locomotion by rocking, rolling, and twisting
– Brings feet to mouth to suck on toes
5 months: Fine Motor – Grasps object with whole hand and explores object
– Beginning to release and transfer objects from hand to hand
5 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Orients self to sound
– Depth perception has developed
– Increased sensory exploration
5 months: Self Care – May begin to teethe
– Holds rattle with one or both hands
5 months: Social Emotional – Smiles at mirror image of self
– Clearly recognizes parents and siblings
– Tries to make contact with others through smiles and vocalizations
– Expresses displeasure
5 months: Cognitive – Imitates more sounds and body movements
– Blows "raspberries"
– Makes vowel sounds and a few consonant (d,b,l,m) sounds
– Babbling begins (mama, dada)
6 months: Gross Motor – Rolls in all directions
– Balances well in ring sitting
– Crawls by pulling stomach with legs and steering with arms
6 months: Fine Motor – Radial palmar grasp emerging
– Transfers objects from hand to hand
– Reaches for toys with one or both hands
6 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Follows path of falling object
6 months: Self Care – Likes to play with food
– Beginning to use spoon with assist
6 months: Social Emotional -Beginning of subjective sense of self
-Beginning to focus away from interactions w/ attachment figures to ext. environment
-Mental representations developing; able to keep parent in mind when not in sight
-Sense of humor developing
-Wary of strangers
6 months: Cognitive – Beginning of Piagetian schemas (action plans)
– Studies objects for a long time
– Turns when name is called
– Starts to entertain self for a very short period of time
– Coos or hums to music
– Makes v, th, f, s, sh, m, n sounds
7 months: Gross Motor – Pushes up on hands and knees and rocks
– Beginning creeping
– bounces when held in standing
7 months: Fine Motor – Attempts to grasp objects using raking motion
– Holds 2 objects simultaneously in hands
– When holding objects in each hand, may hit them together
7 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Explores body with mouth and hands
– May enjoy noisy toys
– Enjoys peek-a-boo
7 months: Self Care – Drinks from a cup with assist
7 months: Social Emotional – Emotions of anger, fear, and sadness become more evident
– Shows interest in being part of social interactions
– Sense of humor developing
– Understands "no"
7 months: Cognitive – Improved concentration
– Imitating variety of sounds
8 months: Gross Motor – Sits independently
– Assists in pull to stand from sitting
– Creeping on hands and knees, forward and backwards
– Creeps with object in hand
8 months: Fine Motor – Lateral pinch developing
– Can pick up a string
8 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Enjoys social games
– Plays vigorously with noisy toys
– Claps
– Can hold an object in one hand and play with a different toy in the other hand
8 months: Self Care – Tastes everything
– Holds bottle independently
8 months: Social Emotional – Firmly attached to primary caregiver (usually mother)
– Objects to confinement
– Shouts for attention
– Pushes away undesirable things (like food)
8 months: Cognitive – Imitates hand movements
– Points and follows what others point to
– Explores features of familiar people
– Recalls past events
– Beginning to do simple problem solving
9 months: Gross Motor – Creeps
– Equilibrium/righting reflexes emerging
– Beginning to take steps with hands held
– Stand with hands placed on furniture
9 months: Fine Motor – Inferior pincer grasp emerging; able to pick up small objects with flattened thumb and finger
– Voluntary release of objects
– Bangs objects together singlarly
9 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Beginning to actively explore the world beyond the door
– Deliberately chooses special toys to play with
– Fears heights, afraid of vertical surfaces
9 months: Self Care – Grasps handle of cup to drink
– Self feeds finger foods
9 months: Social Emotional – Beginning of attachment behavior and separation anxiety
– Beginning of empathy; may cry when another baby cries in his/her presence
– Performs for attention
9 months: Cognitive – Beginning of object permanence (ability to understand even when something is out of sight, it still exists)
– Simple imitative motor behaviors improving
– Imitates non-speech sounds
– Imitates consonant/vowel combinations
9 months: Cognitive, continued – Beginning gestural language
– Understands and obeys some words and commands
– Waves bye-bye
10 months: Gross Motor – Half kneeling emerging
– Pulls to stand to achieve supportive standing position
– Beginning to throw balls
10 months: Fine Motor – Three-jaw chuck grasp developing
– Carries two small objects in one hand
10 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Able to focus for about 5 minutes to play alone or with another adult
– Not sensitive to bright lights
– Responds to music by bouncing and swaying
10 months: Self Care – Eats mashed table foods
– Uses lidded cup
10 months: Social Emotional – Seeks out attention and companionship
– Fears strange and new places
– Sexual identity emerging
10 months: Cognitive – Object permanence established
– Memory skills improving
– Imitates parents' gestures like waving or shaking head
– Working on figuring out simple relationships (such as how a button turns a toy on)
11 months: Gross Motor – Squats and stoops
– Walks with one hand held
– Crawls up stairs
11 months: Fine Motor – Tip pinch emerging
– Picks up tiny objects
– Lifts lids from boxes
– Turns pages of book (not necessarily one at a time)
11 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Uses fingers to poke and touch objects in play
11 months: Self Care – Swallows with mouth closed
– Developing greater skills with use of utensils
11 months: Social Emotional – Not always cooperative
11 months: Cognitive – Looks at familiar objects and persons when named
– First meaningful words
12-15 months: Gross Motor – Lowers self to sitting
– Stands alone
– Takes first steps using wide based gait
– Crawls up and down stairs
– Rolls ball in imitation
12-15 months: Fine Motor – Mature pincer grasp established
– Puts objects into and removes them from containers
– Places blocks in box
– Stacks rings
– Opens and closes things
12-15 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Enjoys squeezing, twisting, and pulling different types of textured objects
– Plays with toys in a representational way, such as a spoon is used to feed a baby
12-15 months: Self Care – Feeds self with spillage
– May refuse to try new foods
– Assists with dressing; pulls off socks, hats, mittens
12-15 months: Social Emotional – Beginning of social referencing; looking to parent to gauge own emotional response
– Resists napping and may throw tantrums
– Beginning to care for dolls or stuffed toys
– Beginning to identify body parts
– Imitates gestures and facial expressions
12-15 months: Cognitive – Memory improving
– Responds to directions
– Identifies animals in pictures
– Uses 2 to 3 words
– Completes simple foam board puzzles
15-18 months: Gross Motor – Walks with stable stops and starts
– Walks forward and backward
– Walks up and down steps with railing or assist from an adult
– Beginning to run
– Climbs on furniture
15-18 months: Fine Motor – Uses and reaches with preferred hand (dominance not yet established)
– Builds tower with 4 blocks
– Puts small objects into and removes them from a narrow neck bottle
– Makes spontaneous marks with crayons
15-18 months: Sensory Motor/Play – May begin to use objects in play in symbolic ways, such as a spoon becomes an airplane
15-18 months: Self Care – Assists with dressing by extending arms and legs
15-18 months: Social Emotional – Becoming interested in mirror image of self
– May continue to be distressed when separated from primary caregiver
15-18 months: Cognitive – Follows 1-step commands
– Able to point to body parts when asked
– Uses 10 to 12 words and accompanying gestures to communicate thoughts
– Beginning of holographic speech; one word conveys an entire thought
18-24 months: Gross Motor – Walks with stable gait
– Seats self in small chair
– Throws ball
18-24 months: Fine Motor – Moves small objects from fingers to palm of same hand
– Puts pegs in holes
– Puts objects into cups or containers
– Scribbles using a primitive grasp
18-24 months: Sensory Motor/Play – Beginning to accept different types of touch, like cuddling & roughhousing
– Able to tolerate different textures of clothes
– Symbolic play (substituting one object for another)
– Beginning parallel play
– Plays alone or with others for 15 minutes
18-24 months: Self Care – Spoon feeds independently
– Takes clothes off
– Proficient with cup drinking
– May show interest in toilet training
18-24 months: Social Emotional – Developing sense of self
– Beginning to display greater range of emotions
– Consistently recognizes self in mirror
– Shows attachment and nurturance towards a stuffed toy
18-24 months: Cognitive – Knows body parts
– Follows 2-step commands
– Functional use of objects well-established
– Hums
2-2.5 years: Gross Motor -Walks up and down stairs independently
– Runs proficiently
– Catches large ball with hands and arms
2-2.5 years: Fine Motor – Moves small objects from palm to fingers of same hand
– Builds 6-block tower
– Able to open lids of jars
– Beginning scissor skills
– Imitates vertical lines
– Draws circles
2-2.5 years: Sensory Motor/Play – Picks out a toy on own
– Plays next to other children (parallel play)
– Plays house, imitates domestic tasks
2-2.5 years: Self Care – Puts shoes on and takes them off (no fasteners)
– Turns door knob
– Uses spoon proficiently
2-2.5 years: Social Emotional – Developing coping mechanisms (limited)
– Seeks parental approval
2-2.5 years: Cognitive – Piagetian Preoperational Stage of Development (2 to 7 years)
– Says 3-word sentences
– Uses "I"
– Refers to self by name
– Starting to ask questions
– Beginning to sort by shape and color
– Able to find hidden objects
2.5-3 years: Gross Motor – Walks up stairs with alternating feet
– Tip toes
– Walks backward
– Kicks ball
– Throws ball
2.5-3 years: Fine Motor – Builds 8-block tower
– Can screw and unscrew 3-inch lids
– Strings 1-inch beads
– Hand dominance established
2.5-3 years: Sensory Motor/Play – Beginning of pretend play
– Beginning of reciprocal play
2.5-3 years: Self Care – Starting to brush teeth and hair
– Puts on simple clothes independently
2.5-3 years: Social Emotional – Frequent imitation of parent behavior
– Gender identity emerging
– Recognizes self in a picture
2.5-3 years: Cognitive -Beginning of telegraphic speech – short sentences that use only essential words
-Beginning to use more pronouns
-Asks "why"
-Understands simple questions
-Names objects in pictures
-Can match & discriminate colors
-Completes simple 2-piece puzzles
3-4 years: Gross Motor – Stands on one foot
– Jumps in place
– Rides tricycle
3-4 years: Fine Motor -Builds 10-block tower
-Makes 3 -4 block train
-Strings half-inch beads
-Folds piece of paper
3-4 years: Fine Motor continued -Cuts snips with scissors
-Copies vertical & horizontal lines, circles, squares, cross
-Drawing of a person is head w/ legs
-Static tripod pencil grasp (3.5-5 yrs.)
3-4 years: Sensory Motor/Play – Beginning to participate in more complex exploratory and imitative play
– Imaginative and creative play emerging
– Beginning to take turns in play
3-4 years: Self Care – Requires little help to dress and undress
– Uses fork and spoon
– Stays dry at night
3-4 years: Social Emotional – Beginning to understand different emotional response
– Learning to regulate emotions
– Displays humorous and mischievous behaviors
– Negative and oppositional at times
– Oedipal issues may emerge (romantic attachment to opposite sex parent)
3-4 years: Cognitive – Completes 8-10 piece puzzle
– 900-1000 word vocabulary
– Speaks in short sentences (4+ words)
– Uses plurals & tenses (not always correctly)
– Can count to 10 by rote (no 1-to-1 correspondence)
3-4 years: Cognitive, continued – Tells simple stories
– Language supercedes actions in communication
– Follows 2-step directions
– Matches simple colors
– Recognizes simple shapes
4-6 years: Gross Motor – Descends steps with reciprocal gait (4 yrs)
– Balances on one foot (4 yrs)
– Hops ( 4 yrs)
– Catches ball using hands (5 yrs)
– Bounces a ball (5-6 yrs)
– Throws overhand (5 yrs)
– Skips (6 yrs)
4-6 years: Fine Motor – Able to cut straight and simple curved lines with 25% accuracy
– Beginning to use tools such as hammers
– Performs rapid alternating forearm movements
– Can copy triangle, simple words, and name with little awareness of spacing or size
4-6 years: Sensory Motor/Play – Pretend play is more logical
– Play becomes cooperative
4-6 years: Self Care – Unbuttons and buttons large buttons
– Dresses and undresses independently
– Beginning to tie shoes (5 yrs)
4-6 years: Social Emotional – Beginning to mask emotions
– Morality is not rule-based; focused on rewards and punishments
– Increased ability to resolve conflicts with peers
– Guilt develops
– Increased peer interaction
– Racial identity emerging
4-6 years: Cognitive – Repeats a 5-10 word sentence
– Repeats 5-7 numbers
– Carries on a conversation
– Beginning to be a more logical thinker
– Developing cause & effect thinking
4-6 years: Cognitive, continued – Understands "why" questions
– Beginning to understand opposites (big vs little)
– Understands differences such as a circle and square
– 1 to 1 correspondence with counting 3 objects
6-12 years: Gross Motor – Masters ball skills
– Masters bike riding (6-7 yrs)
– Learns to swim
– Learns to skate
6-12 years: Fine Motor – Becomes adept at the use of school tools (6-7 yrs)
– Learns & masters manuscript writing (7 yrs)
– Learns and masters cursive writing (9-10 yrs)
– Drawing becomes representational
6-12 years: Sensory Motor/Play – Fantasy play becomes more ritualized
– Play takes on a work orientation and becomes more organized into the form of games
– Beginning to be interested in collections and hobbies
6-12 years: Self Care – Uses knife to spread jelly or butter (6 yrs)
– Uses brush and comb in functional matter
– Engages a zipper
– Beginning to participate in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) tasks
6-12 years: Social Emotional – Attachment needs are also met by peers, not only parents
– Social perspective understanding other's views developing
– Compliance w/ display rules of emotions improving
– Self-esteem develops
6-12 years: Social Emotional, continued – Self-efficacy (recognizing strengths/limits) emerges
– Use psychological traits to define self
– Beginning to engage in more like-gender social relationships
6-12 years: Cognitive – Piagetian Concrete Operational Stage of Development (7-12 years)
– Reverse thinking; analyze from end, then back to beginning
– Better perception of reality
– Improved understanding of cause/effect
6-12 years: Cognitive, continued – Executive processes emerging; improved problem solving , better focus and attention to task
– Applies logic to thinking
– Pragmatics of language develop
– Piagetian Formal Operational Stage of Development (12 yrs)
12-18 years: Gross Motor – Becoming proficient at all gross motor tasks
12-18 years: Fine Motor – Becoming proficient at all fine motor skills and applies this ability to all aspects of life including school work, self-care, and leisure pursuits
12-18 years: Sensory Motor/Play – Participates in competitive team sports
12-18 years: Self Care – Independent with self care
– Beginning to help with meal preparation and take on other household responsibilities (IADLs)
– Learns to manage money
– Learns to navigate more independently in the community
12-18 years: Social Emotional – Defining identity is important task
– Self-concept becomes refined and is based on other people's perspectives
– Quest for autonomy may bring strife into parent-child relationship
– Issues of sexuality emerge
-Dating begins
12-18 years: Cognitive – Abstract thought is cornerstone for adolescence
– Able to think hypothetically
– Verbal and mathematical skills improve
– Sense of invulnerability ("it can't happen to me") may be problematic and danger-provoking

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