Chapter 3

Term Definition
Delta A triangular region formed at the mouth of a river by deposits of silt.
Cataracts Rocky stretches in a river marked by rapid currents or waterfalls
Menes First pharaoh of Egypt; he is credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt and is said to have founded the city of Memphis, the capital of unified Egypt.
Pharaoh Ruler of ancient Egypt.
Theocracy A government ruled by religious leaders who claim God?s authority.
Bureaucracy A highly structured organization, often governmental, managed by officials.
Hatshepsut Queen of ancient Egypt; she took the throne in place of her stepson, Thutmose III, and during her reign, focused on temple-building projects and trade.
Ramses the Great Pharaoh of Egypt; he led an army against Hittite invaders of Egypt. He ruled Egypt with extravagance and built more temples and monuments than any other Egyptian pharaoh.
Obelisks Tall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops.
Mummification The process of preserving the body with chemicals after death.
Heiroglyphics A form of ancient writing in which picture symbols represent sounds.
Papyrus A paper-like material made by Egyptians from the stem of a reedy papyrus plant, which grows in the Nile river delta.
Rosetta Stone A granite stone found in 1799 that bears an inscription in hieroglyphics, demotic characters, and Greek; gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics.
Piankhi King of ancient Kush; he led the Kushites north into Egypt, conquering all of Egypt and making himself Pharaoh.
Smelt To melt or fuse metal in order to separate the metallic components.

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