A&P I Lecture Test 1

Question Answer
Define Anatomy to cut apart, how the body is put together
What is gross anatomy large body parts, visible to the eye, static or constant
What is histology study of tissues
What is regional anatomy specialized regions of the body
What is systematic anatomy study of each system
What is physiology how things work
What are the processes that living things share
What is metabolism the total sum of all the physical and chemical process of the body
What is catabolism to break down
What is anabolism to build up
What are the basic needs of humans Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Maintain Pressure, Shelter
How does negative feedback affect homeostasis keeps the body in homeostasis EX: hungry (brain), insulin (endocrine)
How does positive feedback affect homeostasis will put the body out of homeostasis EX: childbirth, pain (nervous), Oxytocin (hormone, endocrine)
What is homeostasis "steady state"
What two systems regulate and control homeostasis Nervous System and Endocrine System
What is the axial portion of the human body Head, neck and trunk
What is the appendicular portion of the human body appendages or limbs
Name the ventral cavity towards the front of the body, contains the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
What are the organs of the Thoracic Cavity heart and lungs
What are the organs of the abdomen Viscera: covered organs
What are the organs of the pelvis bladder, reproductive organs and rectum
What are the cavities of the head Cranial Cavity, Oral Cavity, Nasal Cavity, Orbital Cavity
What is the parietal membrane lining the cavity walls
What is the visceral membrane covering the organs in the cavity
What is the pleural two cavities, each one holding one lung
What is the peritoneum membrane that covers the walls of a cavity and the organs
Describe the anatomical position the body is erect with feet slightly apart, palms face forward and thumbs pointed away from the body
List the relative positions and describe each Superior (cranial), Inferior (caudal), Anterior (ventral), Posterior (dorsal), Medial, Lateral, (Used for limbs: Proximal, Distal), (Used for Muscle: Superficial, Deep)
Superior (Cranial) eyes are superior to the mouth
Inferior (Caudal) mouth is inferior to the nose
Anterior (ventral) sternum is anterior to the vertebrae
Posterior (dorsal) vertebrae is posterior to the sternum
Medial towards the midline, little finger is medial to the thumb
Lateral away from the midline, little toe lateral to big toe
Proximal closer to midline, elbow is proximal to the wrist
Distal farther away from the midline, ankle is distal to the knee
Superficial close to the surface, external (veins)
Deep under the surface, internal (arteries)
What is bilateral symmetry organism can be divided into two equal halfs
Sagittal Plane divides body into left and right
Mid-Sagittal Plane lies exactly down the middle of the body
Para-Sagittal Plane offset from the midline
Transverse Plane divides body into top and bottom
Coronal Plane "Frontal" divides body into front and back
Cross Section 90 degree angle
Oblique odd angle
Longitudinal straight across
List the Abdominal Regions Umbilical Region, Epigastric Region, Hypogastric Region, Right and Left Iliac Regions, Right and Left Lumbar Regions, Right and Left Hypochindriac Regions
List the Abdominal Quadrants Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ), Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ), Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ), Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
What is the composition of a tissue atoms, molecules and cells
Name four types of tissues found in humans Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscle
What does Epithelial do covers or lines
How are Epithelial classified by shape and arrangement
What are the shapes of Epithelial cells Cuboidal, Columnar, Squamous
What are the arrangements of Epithelial cells Simple, Stratified, Psuedostratified, Transitional
List the simple Epithelial tissues and describe where they are found in the body Simple Cuboidal (found in liver and kidney), Simple Columnar (founds in gallbladder and intestines), Simple Squamous (line the cheek, found in lungs)
List Stratified Epithelial tissues and describe where they are found in the body Stratified Squamous (found in Epidermis)
What is Psuedostratified Epithelium and where is it found looks layered but is simple, found in trachea and uterus
What is Transitional Epithelium and where is it found surface cells are dome shaped or squamous shaped based on degree of organ stretch, found in bladder
What does Connective Tissue do binds,supports,protects
What is a matrix and which tissue types have it living part of the cell, loose, dense, adipose,cartilage,bone,blood
Describe the matrix of a connective tissue Living Part: cell- "-cyte" Non-living Part: (ground substance) Organic: Protein; Inorganic: water, mineral
"-cyte" mature cell
"-blast" makes new cell
"-clast" breaking down
Name proteins found in connective tissue elastin,reticulin,collagen
Name the two abundant minerals found in connective tissue
What is the largest non visceral organ of the body Skin

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